A gifted dancer, spy or courtesan: who was the mysterious Mata Hari?


A talented dancer, spy or courtesan: who was the mysterious Mata Hari?

Mata Hari

Paulo Coelho devoted her novel to her, the composer Giacomo Puccini despatched flowers to her home after every of her performances, her picture on the film display screen was embodied by such stars as Greta Garbo, Merli Oberon, Francoise Fabian, Jeanne Moreau and Sylvia Cristel. SPLETNIK.RU tells the story of probably the most well-known spy and unique dancer Mata Hari.

Margareta Gertrude Zelle was born in 1876 within the Netherlands, she was the daughter of a once-thriving hat service provider who went bankrupt when she was 13 years outdated. Margaretha's mom died in 1891, and her father despatched her to the godfather within the metropolis of Sneek. Then she continued her research in Leiden, aspiring to develop into a kindergarten instructor, however when the principal of the college started to flirt brazenly together with her (in accordance with one other model, the woman herself seduced the director who was her grandfather), the offended godfather took Margaret from this college and she or he moved to Amsterdam.

Mata Hari

There, on the age of 18, she married the officer of the Dutch Military, Rudolf MacLeod, whom she met by announcement. Collectively they lived on the island of Java (the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia), there they’d two youngsters: the son Norman-John (the boy died in 1899 from syphilis) and the daughter Jeanne-Louise (she died on the age of 21 from problems from syphilis ).

Mata Hari and Rudolf MacLeod
Mata Hari and Rudolf MacLeod

The start of a supernova

Not discovering household happiness, Zelle moved to Paris.
I selected Paris, in all probability as a result of all of the wives who had escaped from their husbands can be drawn to this metropolis, She’s going to say later.

Mata Hari

At first she was a mannequin, however extra profitable rivals rapidly pressed her – Margaret was not a lot favored by French artists, as she couldn’t boast a lush bust.

Then she acted as a circus rider underneath the identify of Woman Gresh Mac-Leod. From 1905, her loud fame started as a dancer of the "Oriental type", talking underneath the pseudonym of Mata Hari (actually translated from Malay as "eye of the day" or "solar"). She, not being an expert dancer, herself set the quantity for herself and in 1905 for the primary time appeared earlier than the general public in Paris on the Museum of Oriental Artwork "Musé Guimet". Her efficiency among the many reveals of the museum in an expensive apparel created a furor.
Mata Hari

These completely genuine Brahmin dances Madame Mata Hari realized in Java from the perfect priestesses of India. These dances are stored secret. Within the depths of the temples, solely brahmanas and devadas can observe them, – so the journalists of the newspaper La Vie Parisienne described her efficiency.

Having acquired a brand new identify, the woman started a brand new life. Mata Hari claimed to be the daughter of an Indian temple dancer and was born in Java. In every single place she started to inform the story of how her mom, a 14-year-old Indian girl, died in childbirth, how she herself lived in Buddhist temples, the place she was taught uncommon and unique dances. A few of her dances have been one thing near fashionable striptease after which nonetheless appeared fairly uncommon for a western viewers: on the finish of the efficiency (carried out earlier than a slim circle of connoisseurs on the stage, sprinkled with rose petals), the dancer remained nearly utterly bare (in accordance with legend, "so it was god Shiva ").

Headdress Mats Hari
Headdress Mats Hari

And she or he advised some that she was the illegitimate daughter of the Emperor of India Edward VII and a sure Indian princess, who grew up and was raised by the clergymen of the temple in Kanda Swani:
I by no means knew methods to dance, however individuals favored my performances, more than likely, largely as a result of I used to be bare.

The dearth of professionally designed numbers didn’t forestall her from actually fascinating the crowds of males together with her dancing. Mata carried out in all of the cultural capitals of Europe. As quickly as she stepped onto the stage in a bra, embroidered with treasured stones, and a gold headdress, all eyes have been riveted on her. Profession Mats Hari lasted about ten years. As her contemporaries remembered, she was very charming, spoke a number of languages ​​fluently and simply seduced wealthy and highly effective individuals from completely different nations, together with high-ranking officers, ambassadors and diplomats.

Mata Hari

She performed within the theater in Monte Carlo, the place among the many spectators was the prince of Monaco Albert I. The dancer carried out on the identical stage with world stars – Fyodor Chaliapin, Emma Calvet and Geraldine Farrar.

Two well-known composers, Jules Massenet and Giacomo Puccini, who have been in love together with her, have been prepared to write down music to her dance numbers. Puccini showered her with costly presents (in accordance with rumors, he lowered all the cash meant for the theater troupe to her) and despatched her flowers house after every efficiency. Whereas Jules Massenet, rejected by her, tried to commit suicide.

Mata Hari

The identify of Mata Hari turns into nearly a family identify: it seems on the names of cigarettes, containers of Dutch cookies and sweets, on postcards. Greta’s impoverished father writes a e book about her, which was printed in 1906 and is titled “The Story of My Daughter’s Life and My Objections to Her Former Partner.”

Father Mats Hari
Father Mats Hari

World Warfare I

Throughout the First World Warfare, the Netherlands remained impartial, and, being a Dutch nationwide, Mata Hari may journey from France to her homeland and again. A local of Holland didn’t conceal that she had relationships with males on each side of the battle. Her fixed journey and attracted the eye of the Allied counterintelligence.

Mata Hari

When she was within the Hague in 1915, a German diplomat approached her, who provided a big sum of cash (by fashionable requirements, about 61 thousand {dollars}) for spying for Germany. Mata Hari accepted the cash (later they are going to be used in opposition to her throughout the trial), however later she refused to meet her “mission”. She denied having ever spied for Germany, and claimed that she took cash as compensation for private objects that have been confiscated by Germany initially of the conflict.
I remembered my costly fur coats and outfits, which have been detained by the Germans in Berlin, and determined to get as a lot cash from them as attainable, She mentioned.
Mata Hari

Agent H-21

Returning to Paris, she attracted the eye of Georges Lada, the counterintelligence chief of France, who started to observe her, however couldn’t discover any bodily proof of her espionage.

In 1916, when she turned 40, her dance profession started to say no, and the cash she earned earlier ended quickly. Mata Hari fell in love with the Russian captain Vladimir Maslova. He served within the Russian expeditionary corps and was within the retinue of Nicholas II. When he was wounded on the entrance, she utilized to the conflict division for permission to journey to go to him. Officers, together with Lada, demanded that she develop into a French spy in change for cash for which Mata Hari had hoped to rearrange a powerful wedding ceremony. She agreed, however didn’t inform Lada that she had already agreed to spy on Germany.

Mata Hari

I’ll be just right for you, however solely as a result of I need to marry the person I like, and I need to develop into a rich girl, – mentioned the dancer.

The beloved Mata Hari, because it turned out, didn’t plan to marry her, and usually handled the connection with the dancer simply as a fleeting affair.

Actress Jeanne Moreau as Mata Hari in the movie "Mata Hari. Agent H 21" (Mata Hari, Agent H 21)
Actress Jeanne Moreau as Mata Hari within the film "Mata Hari. Agent H 21" (Mata Hari, Agent H 21)

Lada, apparently, hoped to lure a lady in love. Mata Hari herself, maybe unaware of the harmful recreation she was enjoying, didn’t attempt to cover her reference to Lada, wrote to him by mail (letters may very well be simply intercepted) and infrequently visited his workplaces to gather remuneration for the work accomplished. In accordance with some reviews, the French she offered details about the Germans, the Germans – concerning the French.

In November 1917, the British authorities detained her when she was touring from Spain to the Netherlands. Throughout the onerous interrogations, she admitted that she was employed by the safety providers. Lada betrayed her, saying to the English that he employed her solely to show her work as a German spy. Mata Hari was deported to France.

Greta Garbo as Mata Hari and Ramon Novarro
Greta Garbo as Mata Hari and Ramon NovarroLado himself was later arrested and acknowledged as a double agent, however ultimately he was launched. Upon returning to Paris, Mata Hari was arrested by French intelligence and accused of spying for the enemy in wartime.

I’ve by no means engaged in any espionage exercise in opposition to France,

– assured investigator Hari.

She was allowed to fulfill solely together with her lawyer, who concurrently was her former lover.
Throughout her trial, prosecutors claimed that the knowledge she offered was instantly associated to the deaths of 50,000 Allied troopers. However they might not present any direct proof of her espionage, as a substitute they repeatedly used her immoral, of their opinion, habits as proof of her guilt.

Prosecutor Pierre Bouchardon mentioned:
Indubitably, she, accustomed to utilizing males, refers to these ladies who’re born to be spies.State prosecutor Andre Morne mentioned that "the hurt this girl has accomplished is indescribable," and known as her "the best spy of the century."

Mata Hari

Taking pictures

The navy tribunal, consisting solely of males, determined to shoot her in simply 45 minutes. That morning, the guards got here for her, requested to dress – the girl was outraged that they’d execute her within the morning with out having fed her breakfast. Whereas she was making ready for execution (she wore a black velvet coat, a hat, black suede gloves and high-heeled footwear), the coffin for her physique had already been delivered to the constructing. On the place of execution, at one of many capturing ranges close to Paris, she was already awaited by a firing squad of 12 individuals. Mata Hari requested to not tie her arms and to not put a blindfold on her eyes.

I'm prepared, boys! – In accordance with legend, Mata Hari shouted, sending an air kiss to a platoon of French troopers, who after a second shot her at a navy coaching floor in Vincennes.

Mata Hari

The physique of Mata Hari was not claimed by any of her family members, and due to this fact was transferred to the anatomical theater. Her head was embalmed and preserved within the Museum of Anatomy in Paris. Nonetheless, in 2000, the archivists discovered that the pinnacle had disappeared; they nonetheless can not discover it.

Mata Hari was used to strengthen French morale.

Most historians consider that her arrest and prosecution have been intentionally began by French officers. 1916 was the 12 months of great French failures on the Western Entrance, due to which the troopers even refused to struggle.
Mata Hari’s extraordinary way of life and wealthy love previous made her a straightforward goal. She was very completely different from the French ladies of these years who misplaced their husbands and sons on the entrance, – say the consultants.

Greta Garbo as Mata Hari
Greta Garbo as Mata Hari

“Actually, nobody has ever discovered any concrete proof of her guilt. Her entire life is shrouded in myths and legends,” writes Pat Shipman within the e book “Deadly Lady: Love, Lies, and the Unknown Pages of Mata Hari’s Life.

Spy Legend

In 2016, the Dutch Nationwide Ballet in Amsterdam offered a brand new ballet "Mata Hari". Her story continues to be related as a result of she is a lady who doesn’t meet the norms of society and anybody’s concepts – mentioned Ted Brandsen, managing director of the Netherlands Nationwide Ballet.

Asta Nielsen in the film "Mata Hari" (Mata Hari)
Asta Nielsen within the movie "Mata Hari" (Mata Hari)100 years after the execution, the archives of her interrogations and trials have been open to the general public. Final 12 months, an exhibition devoted to her life was held in a museum in her native province of Mata Hari Friesland.

I thought of her considerably conceited, spoiled and even pathetic. However after I started to learn her letters regarding completely different intervals of life, I out of the blue discovered for myself that she was formidable, clever, and in a position to dwell for her personal pleasure. She wrote lots of of letters, generally six items a day. If she lived now, she would undoubtedly lead Twitter. Her letters make it clear who she actually was and in what temper she was on this or that interval of life,

– mentioned Lawrence Oldersma, a researcher who labored on the exhibition.

Jeanne Moreau in the film "Mata Hari" (Mata Hari)
Jeanne Moreau within the movie "Mata Hari" (Mata Hari)A number of months after her loss of life, the primary biography of Mata Hari was printed. Since then, she has develop into the heroine of lots of of books and essays. Greta Garbo starred in a 1931 movie based mostly on her life. Her biography additionally shaped the idea of many performs, musicals, performances and operas. Nonetheless, historians proceed to argue about whether or not she was actually a secret double agent or only a sufferer concerned within the maelstrom of sexism, intrigue and navy lawlessness.

Vaina Jokante in the series "Mata Hari" (Mata Hari)
Vaina Jokante within the collection "Mata Hari" (Mata Hari)


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