What do we know about the top 20 global polluters? | Environment


1.
Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabia


Ownership: State

HQ: Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

CEO: Amin H Nasser

CEO pay: Undisclosed

Revenue: $355.9bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 13.6m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: $1.51bn worth of renewable energy projects tendered in 2019

Global emissions 1965-2017: 59,262m tonnes of CO2, 4.38% of global total

Projected increase in production 2018-30: 7.2%

Projected emissions 2018-30: 27,035m tonnes of CO2

Future projects: $18bn investment in extending Marjan and Berri oilfields off the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia to extract another 550,000 barrels per day


The Guardian has collaborated with leading scientists and NGOs to expose, with exclusive data, investigations and analysis, the fossil fuel companies that are perpetuating the climate crisis – some of which have accelerated their extraction of coal, oil and gas even as the devastating impact on the planet and humanity was becoming clear.

The investigation has involved more than 20 Guardian journalists working across the world for the past six months.

The project focuses on what the companies have extracted from the ground, and the subsequent emissions they are responsible for, since 1965. The analysis, undertaken by Richard Heede at the Climate Accountability Institute, calculates how much carbon is emitted throughout the supply chain, from extraction to use by consumers. Heede said: “The fact that consumers combust the fuels to carbon dioxide, water, heat and pollutants does not absolve the fossil fuel companies from responsibility for knowingly perpetuating the carbon era and accelerating the climate crisis toward the existential threat it has now become.”

One aim of the project is to move the focus of debate from individual responsibilities to power structures – so our reporters also examined the financial and lobbying structures that let fossil fuel firms keep growing, and discovered which elected politicians were voting for change. 

Another aim of the project is to press governments and corporations to close the gap between ambitious long-term promises and lacklustre short-term action. The UN says the coming decade is crucial if the world is to avoid the most catastrophic consequences of global heating. Reining in our dependence on fossil fuels and dramatically accelerating the transition to renewable energy has never been more urgent.

2.
Chevron, US


Ownership: Shareholder

HQ: San Ramon, California, US

CEO: Michael Wirth

CEO pay: $20.6m for 2018

Revenue: $158.9bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 2.93m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: Chevron Technology Ventures launched its Future Energy Fund with $100m in June 2018. The company says it has also invested $1.1bn in carbon capture and storage projects

Global emissions 1965-2017: 43,345m tonnes of CO2, 3.2% of global total

Projected increase in production 2018-30: 20%

Projected future emissions 2018-30: 7,288m tonnes of CO2

Environmental disaster: Blamed for polluting activities in the Ecuadorian Amazon, although an international tribunal has said it is not liable for damages. Also blamed for oil spills in Angola and Brazil

Future projects: Has a $20bn plan to expand drilling during 2019, including in the Tengiz oilfield in Kazakhstan and the Permian basin in Texas





Michael Wirth, Amin H Nasser and Alexey Miller



Michael Wirth of Chevron, Amin H Nasser of Saudi Aramco, and Alexey Miller of Gazprom. Illustration: Guardian Design

3.
Gazprom
, Russia


Ownership: State

HQ: Moscow, Russia

CEO: Alexey Miller

CEO pay: Undisclosed since 2015. £27m for 2014

Revenue: $126.5bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 9.7m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: N/A

Global emissions 1965-2017: 43,230m tonnes of CO2, 3.19% of global total

Projected increase in production 2018-30: 3%

Projected emissions 2018-30: 18,381m tonnes of CO2

Environmental disaster: The capture and imprisonment of 30 Greenpeace environmental campaigners who tried to occupy a Gazprom drilling platform in the Arctic drew worldwide condemnation

Future projects: The Yamal megaproject is a long-term plan to “exploit and bring to the markets” the vast natural gas reserves in the Yamal Peninsula in Siberia. Gazprom says the centre will eventually produce up to 360bn cubic metres of gas a year


4.
ExxonMobil, US


Ownership: Shareholder

HQ: Irving, Texas, US

CEO: Darren Woods

CEO pay: $18.8m for 2018

Revenue: $290bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 3.7m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: In May, Exxon announced $100m over 10 years in emissions-reduction technologies. It has also said it will use wind and solar to power its Texas oilfields

Global emissions 1965-2017: 41,904m tonnes of CO2, 3.09% of global total

Projected increase in production 2018-30: 35%

Projected emissions 2018-30: 10,446m tonnes of CO2

Environmental disaster: In March 1989 the Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by the Exxon Shipping Company, struck a reef off the Alaska coast. About 37,000 tonnes of oil was spilled into the sea within a few days, befouling more than 1,000 miles of coastline in a remote, relatively untouched area. It remains one of the worst environmental disasters caused by humans

Future projects: Exxon has a goal of boosting its annual earnings potential by more than 140% by 2025 via a glut of major projects in Texas, Guyana, Brazil, Mozambique and Papua New Guinea. These projects are expected to increase Exxon’s production to around five million oil equivalent barrels a day by 2025


5.
National Iranian Oil Co


Ownership: State

HQ: Tehran, Iran

CEO: Roknoddin Javadi

CEO pay: Undisclosed

Revenue: $60bn in 2018, according to Opec

Fossil fuel production: 4m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: N/A

Global emissions 1965-2017: 35,658m tonnes of CO2 2.63% of global total

Projected future increase in production 2018-30: 9.7%

Projected future emissions 2018-30: 15,132m tonnes of CO2

Environmental disaster: The collision of the Iranian tanker Sanchi in January 2018 was the worst oil ship disaster in decades. All 32 crew died and three oil slicks spread over 332 sq km (128 sq miles), raising fears of seafood contamination

Future projects: Huge expansion planned in the coming 10 years that would make this the world’s biggest oil and gas company, although oil production is reportedly at the lowest level since the 1980s as a result of US sanctions





Roknoddin Javadi, Bob Dudley, Darren Woods, Ben van Beurden, Anil Jha



Roknoddin Javadi of National Iranian Oil Co, Bob Dudley of BP, Darren Woods of ExxonMobil, Ben van Beurden of Shell, and Anil Jha of Coal India. Illustration: Guardian Design

6.
BP, UK


Ownership: Shareholder

HQ: London, UK

CEO: Bob Dudley

CEO pay: $14.7m for 2018

Revenue: $304bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 2.35m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: About $0.5bn of BP’s $15bn-$16bn capital expenditure programme

Global emissions 1965-2017: 34,015m tonnes of CO2, 2.51% of global total

Projected increase in production 2018-30: 20.1%

Projected future emissions 2018-30: 7,634m tonnes of CO2

Future projects: The Mad Dog Phase 2 project – in which BP will work alongside BHP and Chevron in 4,500ft of water in the Gulf of Mexico – has the capacity to produce up to 140,000 gross barrels of crude oil per day from 14 production wells. The Mad Dog area is estimated to hold 4bn barrels of oil equivalent.

Environmental disaster: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 was the largest in history. A BP drilling rig exploded, killing 11 workers and spewing about 4m barrels of oil into the Gulf. Experts say it had a devastating environmental impact that altered the basic building blocks of life in the ocean


7.
Royal Dutch Shell, Netherlands


Ownership: Shareholder

HQ: The Hague, Netherlands

CEO: Ben van Beurden

CEO pay: $22m for 2018

Revenue: $388bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 3.6m barrels of oil equivalent a day in 2018

Investment in renewables: $1-$2bn a year (2018-19), or 4-6% of its $25-$30bn annual investment

Global emissions 1965-2017: 31,948m tonnes of CO2, 2.36% of global total

Projected increase in production 2018-30: 37.6%

Projected future emissions 2018-30: 9,403m tonnes of CO2

Environmental disaster: In May 2016 an estimated 2,100 barrels of oil, nearly 90,000 gallons, spilled into the Gulf of Mexico – leaked from an undersea pipeline system operated off the Louisiana coast

Future project: A plan for massive oil and gas fracking in Sierras Blancas, Neuquén, Argentina, of up to 70,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day by the mid-2020s


8.
Coal India, India


Ownership: State and shareholder

HQ: Kolkata, India

Chairman and managing director: Anil Jha

Managing director pay: 5,330,042 rupees (£61,123.79) – part year from July 2018

Revenue: $14.8bn for 2018-19 financial year

Fossil fuel production: 600m tonnes of coal in 2018-19 financial year

Investment in renewables: N/A

Global emissions 1965-2017: 23,124m tonnes of CO2, 1.71% of global total

Future project: Magadh expansion, Karo





Manuel Quevedo of PDVSA, Glenn Kellow of Peabody, Octavio Romero Oropeza of Pemex, and Hou Qijun of PetroChina



Manuel Quevedo of PDVSA, Glenn Kellow of Peabody, Octavio Romero Oropeza of Pemex, and Hou Qijun of PetroChina. Illustration: Guardian Design

9.
Pemex, Mexico


Ownership: State

HQ: Mexico City, Mexico

CEO: Octavio Romero Oropeza

CEO pay: Undisclosed

Revenue: $85bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 2.5m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: N/A

Global emissions 1965-2017: 22,645m tonnes of CO2, 1.67% of global total

Projected increase in production 2018-30: -23%

Projected future emissions 2018-30: 3,577m tonnes of CO2

Environmental scandal: Bribery and tax fraud charges were filed earlier this year against the former head of the state-run oil company, who is accused of receiving bribes in connection with the oil company’s purchase of a fertiliser plant

Future projects: The company says it will focus on shallow water projects rather than costly and technologically complex deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico in the coming years


10.
Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA)


Ownership: State

HQ: Caracas, Venezuela

CEO: Manuel Quevedo

CEO pay: Undisclosed

Revenue: $34.6bn in 2018, according to Opec

Fossil fuel production: 1.6m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: N/A

Global emissions 1965-2017: 15,745m tonnes of CO2, 1.16% of global total

Projected increase in production 2018-30: -12.7%

Projected future emissions 2018-30: 2,505m tonnes of CO2

Environmental disaster: An explosion at Paraguaná, Venezuela’s biggest oil refinery, in 2012 killed 42 people, damaged 1,600 homes and sent plumes of carbon dioxide and toxic chemicals into the sky

Future project: Oil reserves in Venezuela are the biggest in the world, but US sanctions and political chaos mean production has slumped nearly 80% since 2012


11.
PetroChina


Ownership: State and shareholder

HQ: Beijing, China

CEO: Hou Qijun

CEO pay: Undisclosed

Revenue: $328bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 4.1m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: By 2030, the company aims to get 10% of its revenue from “new energy” sources

Global emissions 1965-2017: 15,632m tonnes of CO2, 1.15% of global total

Projected increase in production 2018-30: -12%

Projected future emissions 2018-30: 8,985m tonnes of CO2

Environmental disaster: In 2003, a toxic gas leak in Chongqing killed 242 people. In 2005, an explosion at a plant in Jilin killed six and polluted the Songhua River so badly that 4 million people in Harbin had their taps cut off. In 2010, a pipeline explosion in Dalian discharged 1,500 tonnes of crude oil into the Yellow Sea. The company says it has in place strong environmental protection safeguards

Future project: The vast Tarim oil and gas field in the far western region of Xinjiang is being expanded to 565,000 barrels a day


12.
Peabody Energy, US


Ownership: Shareholder

HQ: St Louis, Missouri, US

CEO: Glenn Kellow

CEO pay: $7.3m for 2018

Revenue: $5.5bn in 2018

Coal sold a day: 509,589 tons (about 460,000 tonnes) in 2018

Investment in renewables: Little to none

Global emissions 1965-2017: 15,385m tonnes of CO2, 1.14% of global total

Environmental disaster: Accused of polluting water supplies on Native American land. The New York attorney general concluded in 2015 it had misled investors on climate change – a settlement followed

Future project: Recently announced a joint venture with Arch Coal to combine operations in Colorado and in the Powder River Basin, which stretches across Montana and Wyoming, so coal can better compete with natural gas and renewables





Ryan Lance of ConocoPhillips, Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company, Nizar Al-Adsani of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, Patrick Pouyanné of Total, and Jabbar Alluaibi of Iraq National Oil Co



Ryan Lance of ConocoPhillips, Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company, Nizar Al-Adsani of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, Patrick Pouyanné of Total, and Jabbar Alluaibi of Iraq National Oil Co. Illustration: Guardian Design

13.
ConocoPhillips, US


Ownership: Shareholder

HQ: Houston, Texas, US

CEO: Ryan Lance

CEO pay: $23.4m for 2018

Revenue: $38.7bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 1.2m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: Bought the solar company Lightsource for $200m last year

Global emissions 1965-2017: 15,229m tonnes of CO2, 1.12% of global total

Projected increase in production 2018-30: 11%

Projected future emissions 2018-30: 3,094m tonnes of CO2

Environmental disaster: Fined by authorities in the US and China over oil spills. In 2005 it agreed to spend more than half a billion dollars to remedy clean air violations in the US

Future project: Escalated drilling operations in the North Sea, as well as in Canada and Alaska


14.
Abu Dhabi National Oil Company


Ownership: State

HQ: Abu Dhabi, UAE

CEO: Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber

CEO pay: Undisclosed

Revenue: $6.2bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 2.1m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: N/A

Global emissions 1965-2017: 13,840m tonnes of CO2 (and methane converted to CO2), 1.01% of global total

Projected future increase in production 2018-30: 22.4%

Projected future emissions 2018-30: 6,224m tonnes of CO2

Future project: Expansion of polypropylene plants – the key product in the making of single-use plastics such as clingfilm and margarine pots – to increase production by 11% to reach 5m tonnes per year


15.
Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, Kuwait


Ownership: State

HQ: Kuwait City, Kuwait

CEO: Nizar al-Adsani

CEO pay: Undisclosed

Revenue: $58bn in 2018, according to Opec

Fossil fuel production: 2.7m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: N/A

Global emissions 1965-2017: 13,479m tonnes of CO2 (and methane converted to CO2), 1% of global total

Projected increase in production 2018-30: 7.3%

Projected future emissions 2018-30: 6,897m tonnes of CO2

Future project: It has announced plans for energy projects of $500bn over the next 20 years, to increase oil production to 4.75m barrels a day


16.
Iraq National Oil Co, Iraq


Ownership: State

HQ: Baghdad, Iraq

CEO: Jabbar Alluaibi, the Iraqi oil minister

CEO pay: Undisclosed

Revenue: $68bn in 2018, according to Opec

Fossil fuel production: 1.5m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: N/A

Global emissions 1965-2017: 12,596m tonnes of CO2 equivalent, 0.93% of global total

Future projects: There are huge oil reserves in Iraq and the INOC says there are also four gas projects on the table including al-Halfaya, which is expected to produce 300m cubic metres per day. Basra gas projects are also growing


17.
Total SA, France


Ownership: Shareholder

HQ: Courbevoie, France

CEO: Patrick Pouyanné

CEO pay: $3.55m for 2018

Revenue: $209bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 2.3m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: No figure for renewables but it says $1.5bn-$2bn in “low carbon electricity”

Global emissions 1965-2017: 12,352m tonnes of CO2 equivalent, 0.91% of global total

Projected increase in production 2018-30: 12.2%

Projected future emissions 2018-30: 5,830m tonnes of CO2

Environmental disaster: Total SA was found to be responsible for the 1999 sinking of the tanker Erika in the Bay of Biscay when 20,000 tonnes of toxic fuel oil polluted the sea, devastating 250 miles (400km) of beaches and shoreline, crippling local industries and killings tens of thousands of seabirds

Future projects: Alongside its fellow fossil fuel giant Exxon, Total SA is planning a $10bn expansion into Papua New Guinea that is set to double the impoverished country’s export of liquid natural gas





Roberto Castello Branco of Petrobas, Rachid Hachichi of Sonatrach, and Andrew Mackenzie of BHP Billiton



Roberto Castello Branco of Petrobras, Rachid Hachichi of Sonatrach, and Andrew Mackenzie of BHP Billiton. Illustration: Guardian Design

18.
Sonatrach, Algeria


Ownership: State

HQ: Algiers, Algeria

CEO: Rachid Hachichi

CEO pay: Undisclosed

Revenue: $39bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 2.4m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: N/A

Global emissions 1965-2017: 12,302m tonnes of CO2, 0.91% of global total

Projected increase in production 2018-30: -17.8%

Projected future emissions 2018-30: 3,637m tonnes of CO2

Environmental disaster: In July, the company suffered its worst accident in 15 years when a huge liquefied natural gas complex exploded. Smoke billowed into the sky for two days until firefighters extinguished the blaze

Future projects: Already Africa’s biggest company, Sonatrach is planning to become a player in the global plastic industry by building a huge new polypropylene plant in Algeria. Sonatrach is also responsible for solar power in Algeria, which the government wants to develop so it can export more oil


19.
BHP Billiton, Australia


Ownership: Shareholder

HQ: Melbourne, Australia, and London, UK

CEO: Andrew Mackenzie

CEO pay: $3.5m for 2018

Revenue: $45.8bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 403,562 barrels of oil equivalent, plus 191,474 tonnes of coal (thermal and metallurgical) a day

Investment in renewables: None

Global emissions 1965-2017: 9,802m tonnes of CO2 equivalent, 0.72% of global total

Environmental disaster: The 2016 collapse of a tailings dam in Brazil killed 19 people, destroyed villages, left hundreds homeless and killed fish and other aquatic life in the Gualaxo do Norte River

Future project: The untapped Trion oil project in the Gulf of Mexico could yield more than 485m barrels of oil equivalent. BHP bought a 60% share in 2016 and operates the project


20.
Petrobras, Brazil


Ownership: State

HQ: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

CEO: Roberto Castello Branco

CEO pay: Undisclosed

Revenue: $95.5bn in 2018

Fossil fuel production: 2.6m barrels of oil equivalent a day

Investment in renewables: N/A

Global emissions 1965-2017: 8,676m tonnes of CO2, 0.64% of global total.

Projected increase in production 2018-30: 12.8%

Projected future emissions 2018-30: 5,427m tonnes of CO2

Environmental disaster: Oil spills of over a million litres into Guanabara Bay in Rio de Janeiro in 1975 and 2000. Many others since, including two this year of hundreds of thousands of litres from offshore platforms and ships

Future projects: Preparing for the world’s biggest expansion of offshore oil and gas production by putting out tenders for seven huge floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) vessels



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