U.S. President John F. Kennedy, who approved the mission of NASA's Moon But, they were not very excited about the Space mission.
In 1962 when Kennedy, the head of NASA's time, James James met the Web, he told the web, "I'm not interested in space. I think it's a good thing."
"I think we should know about space, we are ready to spend some money for it, but the money you are demanding for it will ruin our budget."
This communication between Kennedy and NASA Chief has been released by the Library of the documents of John F. Kennedy Presidential Library i.e. Kennedy's presidency tenure. In this conversation, the real intention of Kennedy is cleared after reaching the moon.
Kennedy had said to James Webb ahead, "I think we should make this program in such a time-bound manner that we can beat them. We can show them that we can beat them despite the many years behind them on the space front. "
That is, when Kennedy gave a green signal to NASA on the mission of the Moon, then his motive was to overthrow the Soviet Union in this area.
But, winning the race was a big challenge for the USA.
The estimated estimated cost of Apollo missions was estimated at around $ 25 billion at that time. According to today, this amount is about $ 175 billion. In 1965, NASA's share in the US budget was 5 percent. Today it is only half a percent.
The billions of dollars that the US spent in funding for rocket, space shuttle, computer, mission control room and four million people. And, only 12 people could be taken to the moon.
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What was so expensive?
What money did NASA spend on sending people to the moon, was it reasonable? US citizens had no answer to this question. We are talking about this in the context of a survey conducted in 1967.
Roger Lawnius of the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, Washington, United States has collected these figures. Which was published in the journal Space Policy Journal. According to this, the American people believed that their country's priority should not be to participate in space race.
Even when the Soviet Union was far ahead of the US in space race in 1961, the American public was still not interested in spending so much money in space missions.
In the survey of June 1, 1961, half of Americans supported the Moon mission to defeat the Soviet Union, while half of the people described it as wasteful. After the Apollo 1 accident in January 1967, after killing three astronauts, more than half of the American Moon was against the mission.
After the successful completion of human beings in 1969, the support of Apollo missions among common American citizens has increased. Although 9 months later when Apollo suffered 13 incidents, once again the American public was against it.
When Apollo 17 mission, Jean Cernon and Harrison Schmidt were walking on the moon, then about 60 percent of Americans believed that their government was spending a lot more in space. By then the U.S. government had reduced NASA's budget very much and the remaining missions of the remaining missions were also canceled.
It is a myth that NASA's Apollo mission was considered a national pride and it had full support from the American public. If these surveys of that period are to be considered, then we come to the conclusion that the average American wanted the money to be spent in other important works rather than the space mission instead of the space mission.
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Astronauts on the moon
When NASA was working on the plan to send humans to the moon, then a major challenge was to design special clothing for those who went there. These are called spaceships.
NASA engineers were to create such space space, which is strong and comfortable too. NASA entrusted the creation of a space ship to the Bra-making company, International Latex Corporation.
There were many layers in each space, which were made of plastic fibers, rubber and metal wires. On top of all these teflon cloths were clamped. These spacesuit was prepared by specially sealed by hand.
A life support system was added to these. Thereby, every spacetime itself had become like a space shuttle. Each pair was made so flexible in that space astronauts did not have any difficulty in moving the hand and foot. SpaceSuits designed for the Apollo missions were much better than the Gemini mission of NASA.
Says Apollo 9 astronaut Rusty Schweicart, "Space space created for Gemini missions was not comfortable. By wearing them, no work outside the spacecraft could have been done."
In March 1969, when Rusty spent a little while leaving his specraft in space, he tested the goodies and weaknesses of this new space. At that time he was in the orbit of the earth.
Recalling that day, Rusti says, "During the spacewalk, I got freedom from the space shuttle. I was in contact with my space shuttle through a wire, so that I do not wander anywhere."
"My friends had to walk far and wide on the moon, so if they wear old spacesuit, then their lunar could not go far further than the module, that is why the backpack was independently installed in the new space so that the spaceman, If you go away, then they should not have any problem. "
Later spacesuit was further improved, so that he could sit on the rover running on the moon and run it.
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Prior to the Apollo 11 mission, the American President of that time had prepared two speeches. One was for the mission to succeed and the other was because if for some reason the astronaut who went to the moon could not return to Earth, then it would be given.
In this speech, it was written that, 'It was the account of kismat that the person who went to the moon for discovery, will remain there forever. Their souls will always remain on the moon. These brave men Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin know that there is no hope of their return. But they also know that their sacrifice is a hope for humanity.
Before Apollo 11, nobody had created a machine to throw humans on another celestial body, and the fact was that the idea of â€‹â€‹a safe return was made after landing.
For this reason, NASA, who had made the Lunar module for landing on the moon, knew something about a spider-like foot in its thin walls and light frames, which could only work in space.
There were two parts in the Lunar Lander. A landing part, in which the pad was made to land on the moon and an uprising part. There was only one engine in it, connecting astronauts back to the spacecraft floating in the orbit of the moon. That is, if the engine failed due to any reason, there is no other way to bring people back to the Moon on the ground.
Gary Griffin, flight director of Apollo 11 says that, "Lunar Lander was the only link in the whole mission, which had no choice. That engine had to work. If he failed, then the game would have ended. There was no other way. '
NASA gave contract to make the company named Gruman Corporation a Lunar Lander. Its cost was approximately $ 388 million. However, it took a lot of time to make it and many times its trial had to be avoided. The first trial of Lunar Lander was in January 1968.
Within a year, Apollo 9 spaceman Jim McDevitt and Rusty Schweicert made the spacecraft to take the spacecraft into the Earth's orbit. Then, during the Apollo 10 mission, Tom Stafford and Jean Cernon took the lander to 47 thousand feet of the moon's surface, which is around 14 kilometers. Cronan and Stafford were trapped in very difficult when returning to the command module.
To turn on the Lander's navigation system, when Cernon and Stafford switched on it and wanted to separate the upper part from the bottom part, a switch was located in the wrong place. After this, when he turned on the engine, the space shuttle was in vain.
Cernon gave a scream loudly. Recalling that opportunity, Cernon later told that he saw the surface of the moon in eight different ways within 15 seconds. However, Cernon said that he had no time to panic.
Fortunately, Stamford stabilized the Lunar Lander by disarming it manually. Later engineers estimated that if it was too late for two seconds, the lander would have collided with the moon's surface.
Cernon said, 'These shortcomings are not hardware. This mistake was human. How fair are you? Do any exercise too. A slight negligence could destroy the entire mission. '
Gene Cernon had nearly died in the event of death. Although he later apologized to the American public for abusing
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When the moon goers,
When Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin and Mike Collins returned to Earth, they were the most famous creatures of this planet. However, this did not increase their payouts.
According to their seniority, NASA's Apollo missions used to get $ 17 to 20 thousand dollars per year. In today's date, this amount is one hundred and twenty thousand dollars. More than astronauts, the TV anchors covering this event were earning.
Astronaut did not get money in exchange for taking the risk of going to the moon. Yes, he could certainly recover the bill of travel. That is why Edwin Aldrin had a $ 33.31 bill to go to Houston's Spaccraft Center while coming from Florida to his home.
Apart from this, astronauts also received a share of income from the agreement between NASA and Life magazine.
After the separation from the space program, many astronauts got jobs in big salaries in big companies. Many started going to become a guest in the TV. Apart from this he also got to do many ads.
As the victims of the cold during Apollo 7 mission, the Valley vein later became the brand ambassador of the drug that opened the nose. Similarly, Buzz Aldrin advocated insurance, car and oats. Even today, his income is more than earning in 1969.
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