A Grade Promise Is it a dream to prepare children to learn something instead of showing fear of an F grade? Probably not.
Children naturally want to know things around them in an ignorant state.
From grass testing to playing with pets, they want to know how things work and how they taste.
According to experts, innocent children do nothing to get reward or escape punishment.
Natural curiosity is intrinsic motivation and reward is external motivation.
Which of these is a better way to motivate children to learn something? Can the joy of learning be increased without giving them rewards?
Professor Frederick Guay of Laval University in Quebec says, "With intrinsic motivation you start a fast job. Children are active and inquisitive by nature. Teachers need to nurture that motivation."
Gue and his colleagues conducted a meta-analysis of 344 studies conducted on more than two million students from primary to university level on the subject of intrinsic motivation and outcome.
Students filled out questionnaires designed to measure different types of motivations and their grades were taken from report cards.
Researchers noticed that in the subjects which the students enjoyed more, they got good numbers and their creativity also increased.
Other research also supports that internally motivated students are better at learning.
A study conducted in Germany found that students aged 7 to 9 who drowned in reading stories were ahead of competing students in reading and understanding unread passages.
Another German study found a correlation between intrinsic motivation and achievement of reading in 8–10-year-olds, but no such correlation was found with external motivation.
The benefits of intrinsic motivation on display are not limited to children.
A study that examined motivation levels among cadets at West Point Military Academy found that those who were purely internally motivated were more likely to become commissioned officers, increase service, and get early promotions than those who were internally and externally Both were inspired.
Why do we offer stickers?
Despite evidence of the importance of intrinsic motivation, the reward culture in schools reaches its zenith. Children get stickers on good behavior and report cards are given by recording achievements.
Teachers of children from kindergarten to fifth grade encourage them by praising them. About 80 percent of the teachers give prizes on a weekly basis.
These can include rewards such as buying tokens or giving extra time for fun activities.
Christine Dewert has taught children ages 5 to 6 in California for 9 years.
During his studies at the university, there was a strong emphasis on intrinsic motivation and avoiding too many awards. But she understands the value of awards in everyday professional experience.
He says that by praising the good behavior of one student, other students are also motivated to do the same.
DeWart tells of a mischievous and aggressive student, "I didn't want to just punish him for misbehavior, so I started a behavior plan involving rewards."
"For every 15 minutes of controlled behavior, he earned 1 minute of free time, which he could later use."
"The 15 minutes were later reduced to 30 minutes and then it was reduced to a full chapter, in which that child learned to be calm and meditative. The whole process actually started with a reward."
Can intrinsic motivation be enhanced?
If teaching children is a complex mixture of curiosity and rewarding, can work be rewarded?
Sarah McGione, senior lecturer in developmental psychology at Edinburgh University, says teachers and parents can increase a child's intrinsic motivation.
Finding the right level of books to read is very important, because this makes students readers even if they read comic books or magazines instead of novels.
"It is really important to help children identify the genres or writers that they can enjoy," says McGione.
Gue believes that it is important to make children feel that they have options and they are studying on their own.
"Focus on the quality of the relationship with the students rather than the awards. It means listening to the children and also accepting their negative feelings."
Gue suggests that take time to redress the negative feelings of children about activities that are not fun and show their importance.
"Students who value learning, whether fun or not, tend to produce the same positive results as children with high levels of intrinsic motivation."
What grade will the feedback replace?
What does this mean for grades, which is perhaps the biggest external motivator for school students?
Both Guay and McGione say that less attention should be paid to grades and more efforts made during this process. But some teachers want to go beyond this.
Aaron Blackwelder, a teacher who taught English in high school, helped create the Facebook group "Teachers Going Gradeless" three years ago. Initially, it had a few hundred members, which has now increased to more than 5,000.
He was inspired by studies in the 1980s in which children aged 10 to 12 were given the option to both grade, grade and feedback, or simply take feedback.
Interest and performance were the best among students who took only feedback. Gaining feedback with grades or grades reduced their interest and performance also dropped.
Instead of giving grades, Blackwellers give students a list of skills in which they have to master. He purely chooses the feedback model for the assignment.
Some teachers are skeptical about their methods but they themselves believe that they are effective.
There are always some children who do not take part in these activities. Their number has not increased, while the number of children participating has increased rapidly.
"They trust me for constructive feedback because my actions are not considered punitive."
Students also trust each other because they do not compete to get the highest marks or the best grades. "
Blackwelder also needs to grade at the end of the term, regardless of his favorite model.
But education reform think tank Thomas B. Adam Tyner, Associate Director of the Fordam Institute, says the grade is for a practical purpose.
"The main advantage of grades is that it brings the performance of students on a single scale that parents and students can understand."
Teachers can include the academic performance of a student in grades as well as his daily behavior.
That is, it not only includes the subject knowledge of the students, but it can also be known that they have non-cognitive skills like cooperation.
Teachers who adopt only the feedback model in the classroom also have to give the final grade point.
This fact is also a social fact. When we grow up and do a job, external motivation in the form of salary plays a big role in our life.
Place of award in studies
This partly explains why external motivation for older students can boost their performance.
Tyner talks about the "College Readiness Program" of the National Math and Science Initiative (NMSI) of the USA, which provides advanced training to high school students, as well as financial incentives to successful students and teachers.
Kirabo Jackson, an economist at Northwestern University, evaluated the program and found that it increased college attendance by 4.2 percent.
In some subgroups, its results were surprising. The income of Spanish-speaking students participating in the NMSI program rose by 11 percent.
Tyner states that external motivators can suppress current high intrinsic motivation, but this is not always the case and children are not always intrinsically motivated to begin with.
He says, "Researchers have made one thing clear that when intrinsic motivation is already high, external motivators can be dangerous."
"The experience changes completely when economic incentives are added to the work done for fun."
"I suspect that for most teenagers, in school work, especially in difficult and technical subjects such as mathematics, we should worry about decreasing students' intrinsic motivation."
The two inspirations can support each other. "If students learn something from external motivation and if learning is to be strong, then external motivators can indirectly empower students."
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